Glossary of raw ingredients in the Auro Paint range

AURO PAINT Raw Materials  Guide

Binders, resins, oils, waxes, fats, soaps:

Beeswax: Pure, unbleached, ductile  beeswax  from best provenances, certified low residue  level. Germany.

Beeswax(-ammonia) soap: Beeswax is saponified with liquid ammonia  in dedicated boilers. It serves  as a natural wetting agent in pigments.

Carnauba wax: Hard, water-repellent wax obtained from a Brazilian palm tree species. The leaves of these  tall palm trees are cut (they constantly  grow again), the wax is liquefied  by boiling  in  water,  skimmed  off the  top  and cleaned physically (with bleaching  earths).  Thanks to its particular hardness, this wax enhances the mechanical resistance of all soft waxes. South America.

Colophony glycerol ester: Natural resin colophony is modified with the fat glycerin in a boiling process on the basis of a special method.  The result is a binder with very good weather resistance and elasticity. Europe.

Dammar: One of the  most  valuable  and  beautiful  vegetable   resins  on  earth.  Its  name  is  derived  from the Malaysian word for “cat eye”. It is very light-coloured and low in yellowing. Its tree of origin on Sumatra also supplies Meranti wood. The cultivation of dammar resin enables the inhabitants of Sumatra to sustainably use the tropic forest without destroying  it. The use  of dammar  thus  actively combats the depletion of tropical forests. Asia.

Wood oil – stand oil: Oil boiled until thick originating from the nut of the Chinese Tung tree; a valuable,  easily drying lacquer binder. Asia.

Potassium silicate: Finely dispersed solution of silicates in water which is produced by smelting  quartz  sand  and potash. Used as binder for silicate paints and plaster. Germany.

Lime  colophony:   Made  from  melted   colophony  resin whose natural acid content is neutralised by adding quick lime. Germany.

Coconut fat potassium soap: Fat from the seeds of coconut palm trees gently saponified with caustic potash solution in dedicated facilities. South America.

Larch resin balsam: An ethereal balsam resin produced by drilling into the larch tree trunks; colourless, smells of terpene and serves as scent and binder. Europe.

Linseed oil: Fatty seed  oil of the linseed  plant (Linum usitatissimum), produced by cold and  warm pressing  fol- lowed by gentle desliming and physical discolouring (without chemical bleaching agents). Valuable binder component  which provides  high elasticity and creep;  partly from regional, improved conventional and ecological cultivation. Germany.

Linseed fatty acid: Fatty acid produced naturally from linseed  oil by the separation of glycerin (see glycerin) which helps to wet pigments. Germany.

Linseed  potassium soap: Nurturing cleaning  agent  produced from pure linseed oil by saponification with caustic potash solution or potash, slightly water soluble, very easily biodegradable. Germany.

Linseed oil – stand oil: Valuable binder for lacquers, stains and wall paints  produced by boiling of linseed  oil until thick. The respective boiling time is decisive for the different viscosities. Germany.

Natural rubber latex: Chyle produced by cutting through the bark of rubber trees  cultivated  in South East Asia; a highly concentrated natural  dispersion of natural  rubber (caoutchouc) in water. An indispensable binder  mainly used in adhesives. Contains a little liquid ammonia to prevent flocculation during transport. Asia.

Sodium  palm kernelate  potassium soap: Fat made  from the crushed  seeds of oil palms (not to be mixed up with palm oil generated from pulp) gently saponified with caustic potash solution  in dedicated facilities. The soap  has very good wash properties. South America.

Rape oil potassium soap: Oil from the seeds of Brassica napus, also referred to as turnip rape, gently saponified with caustic potash solution in dedicated facilities. Small amounts of soap  are used  to synergistically improve the wash performance  of other plant soaps.

Castor stand oil: Valuable, dryable binder made from rici- nus oil, i.e. oil from the seeds of the subtropical Ricinus shrub by means  of dehydration (elimination of water).

Ricinus oil potassium soap: Oil from the seeds of the sub- tropical Ricinus shrubs (Ricinus communis) gently saponified with caustic  potash solution  in dedicated facilities. The soap  has  a minor wash  performance but  excellent properties for natural foam regulation.

Safflower stand oil: Drying oil made from the fatty seed oil of the Safflower thistle, thickened by boiling to form a low- yellowing binder. Europe.

Shellac: Resinous substance produced by lac insects (Laccifer lacca) living on trees domiciled in India. The resin encrustations are removed from the tree branches, filtered hot  through  cloths  and  bleached – not chemically  but purely physically by AURO. Elastic binder for quick-drying lacquers. Asia.

Shellac (ammonia soap): Water-dilutable dispersion made by means  of saponification with ammonia  liquid in dedicated facilities, used as binder e.g. in vegetable paints.

Soy bean oil potassium soap: Oil from soy beans gently saponified with caustic  potash solution  in dedicated facilities.

Sunflower oil: A light yellow, fatty oil from sunflower seeds which is used in lacquers, paints and soaps. Germany.

Sunflower oil potassium soap: Oil made from the seeds of the central European sunflower (Helianthus annuus) gen- tly saponified with caustic potash solution in dedicated fa- cilities. This soap has an excellent wash performance and is the most important  plant soap  in most AWALAN prod- ucts. AURO only uses  sunflower oil from ecological culti- vation.

Walnut oil: Fatty seed oil from the pulp of the Juglans regia; very valuable,  semi-drying binder  for artist  paints.  Germany.

Mineral pigments and fillers:

Aluminium silicate: Aqueous alumina naturally formed by weathering of rock rich in aluminium or fine, mineral filler with pigment properties produced by technical  precipitation. Europe.

Wood cellulose:  Organic  filler based on  cellular  fibres made from deciduous wood or beech wood without using chlorine bleach. Provides wall paints and plaster with mechanical strength and a resorption capacity similar to that of wood. Germany.

Chromoxide greenGreen mineral  pigment  made  from chromium ores. Its production has negative environmental impacts  but there is no alternative  yet. In contrast  to so- called chromium (VI) compounds, it is insoluble and there- fore non toxic. Germany.

Earth and mineral pigments: extremely finely dispersed, highly transparent pigments  with excellent UV protection and good weather resistance which are especially used in stains. Europe.

Iron oxide pigments, transparent: Inorganic pigments like natural  earth  paints,  synthetic  iron oxide pigments, e.g. ochre, English red, Persian red, earth black, and selected mineral paints  such as ultramarine  and chromium green. Europe.

Calcite (marble powder): Natural appearance of calcium carbonate (like chalk). Available from most finely ground to coarse  grain size. Filler for lacquers, wall paints,  plaster and adhesives. Europe.

Kaolin: Natural clay mineral (china clay, an alumina  sili- cate). Filler for wall paints, plaster,  lacquers. Base compo- nent for chinaware. Europe.

Catalytically effective pigments: Inorganic pigments with a special, finely dispersed structure. Capable of splitting up and  degrading  organic  components, including  harmful substances, under UV impact.

Chalk: Natural calcium  carbonate from best  sites,  e.g. Hildesheim Börde, finely ground and elutriated, therefore high whitening power and grain fineness. Germany.

Quartz sand: Crystalline silicic acid, silicium dioxide, one of the most frequent minerals of the earth’s crust. A chem- ically very hardwearing  material  which forms during the weathering  process of eruptive rock. Virtually unlimited availability. Germany.

Talcum: Natural silicate  mineral  with pronounced layer structure (“steatite”). Thixotropic and pigment-saving filler for paints and lacquers. Europe.

Titanium dioxide: Very opaque, non toxic white pigment for paints and lacquers. Made from natural minerals (e.g. rutile) by separation of coloured  companion  substances. AURO has always used this pigment from sulphate proce- dures  with weak  acid  recycling and  recovery of green malts,  without dumping  of weak acids and without chlo- rine chemistry. Germany.

Ultramarine: An inorganic pigment whose crystalline struc- ture is similar to that of lazurite. Used as mineral pigment in all blue stains  and lacquers. Europe.




Alaun: A white, crystallised powder made from potassium and aluminium sulphate used  in the manufacture of veg- etable  paints.  Germany.

Amine soaps: Ammonium compounds modified by organic components. Facilitate the  integration  of binders  into water-based products. Europe.

Bentone:  A natural  clay mineral,  swelling clay, which is used  as gelling and thixotropic agent in gloss paints  and printing inks, waxes, putties, adhesives but also for cos- metic products. Europe.

Borax: Natural mineral from specific salt lakes; traditional, mild alkali used for pulping e.g. of casein. North America.

Boric acid: Weak mineral acid formerly made from Tuscan spring water, today produced from borax with sulphuric acid. Europe.

Boric salt (sodium octaborate): Natural mineral from salt lakes. Very effective, non volatile, non fumigating agent for preventive  biological wood and flame protection.  North America.

Cellulose ether, ester: Expanding agents made from wood cellulose by chemical pulping. Serve as simple adhesives in AURO Wallpaper paste and distemper, but also used as emulsifiers and thickening agents in paints and adhesives for better processing control. Europe.

Citrate: Sodium or potassium salt of citric acid. Germany

Citric acid: Natural fruit acid in citrus fruits with good lime dissolving and water softening effect; made from molasse by means  of fermentation. Germany.

Green vitriol: Found as  mineral  in the  form of green  or white encrustations; technically produced by dissolving iron in sulphuric acid. This raw material is used  for wood preservation, plant dyeing and in tanneries. Europe.

Gypsum: Natural gypsum, calcium sulphate, from deposits in the Harz region. Germany

Sodium sulphate: Salt made  from sodium  sulphite and sulphuric  acid, used  in vegetable paints  and detergents. Germany.

Glycerin: Polyvalent alcohol. Component of all animal and vegetable fats,  produced by separation of fatty acids. AURO only uses  glycerin of purely vegetable origin. Ger- many.

Gum arabicum:  Dried mucilage from different species of acacia, also called acacia rubber. This rubber is colourless to brown and odourless. Dissolved in warm water, it forms a ductile, gluey liquid used in adhesives and as thickening agent. Europe.

Salts of hartshorn: In chemistry referred to as ammonium carbonate, used as lead additive in vegetable paints.  Ger- many.

Caustic potash:  Strong alkali for the saponification of vegetable oils and fats to generate wash active sub- stances. Made from potassium chloride and water by electrolysis. Germany.

Camomile extract: Produced from camomile by alcohol extraction, protects  the skin. Germany.

Silicic acid: Finely dispersed silicic acids without crys- talline (quartz) structure  made  from quartz sand  and lime by flame hydrolysis. Used as matting filler or as fil- ter agent and binder additive in silicic brines. Germany.

Cork: Dermal tissue  formed by almost any green plant on its subterranean and superterranean parts. Only the very thick cork layer of the cork oak (Quercus suber) domiciled  in Mediterranean countries  is of economic use. Europe.

Cork powder, granulated cork: Coarsely to finely ground cork. Germany.

Lecithin: Natural phospholipid made  from soy beans by hot water extraction  which promotes wetting and emulsification. Germany.

Lactic acid: Acid produced by the fermentation of sugar by means  of lactic acid bacteria. Prevents lime stains on crockery. Germany.

Lactic casein: Flocculated milk protein made from cow’s milk by acidification after separating the fat. Valuable binder and emulsifier used  in paints  and adhesives. For this purpose it is pulped with mild alkalines (borax) to form casein paste. Germany.

Sodium metasilicate: Alkaline, water-dilutable sodium salt of silicic acid. Has a fat-dissolving  effect in dish- washing  detergents due  to its alkalinity and  is also water softening and anticorrosive.  Germany.

Sodium  percarbonate:  An adduct  of chlorine-fee bleaching agent hydrogen peroxide to sodium carbon- ate. Decomposes into sodium carbonate, water and ac- tive oxygen at higher temperatures. The latter has  a bleaching  effect on stains. Free of boron. Germany.

Natron: In chemistry referred to as natrium hydrogen carbonate, used  as neutralising agent and retarder  in paints.  Germany.

Organic acids: Carbon compounds with slightly acidic properties (as opposed to known mineral acids such as sulphuric acid). In combination with AURO binders based on vegetable resins and oils, organic acids im- prove the application-related properties of coating ma- terials. Germany.

Potash:  Mild alkali  formerly lixiviated from potash, today produced by the conversion  of sodium  carbon- ate with potash soaps. Used for the saponification of vegetable waxes, resins and oils. Germany.

Swelling  clay: Natural  mineral  (phyllosilicate)  with good swelling capacity.  Used as thixotropic agent  in aqueous and resinous oily products with good swelling capacity and dirt absorption capacity following surface treatment. Germany.

Rape, ricinus oil tensides, emulsifiers:

Specifically se- lected auxiliaries based on vegetable oil,

chemically modified,  for the in-house  production  of aqueous, solvent-free  oil resin binder for AURO Aqua products. Germany.

Ox bile:  Thanks  to  its  high  content   in  bile  acids, lecithins  and enzymes,  recommended as concentrate for local stain removal which is gentle on fibres. Ger- many.

Liquid ammonia:  Alkaline solution  of ammonia  in water, used  for making special,  water-dilutable resin, wax and oil soaps, so-called ammonia soaps. Germany

Phyllosilicate:  A mineral similar to swelling clay but produced by precipitation. The silicate particles are po- sitioned in sheets. Phyllosilicate has a high binding ca- pacity for calcium and is thus the main ingredient  of our softener component. Germany.

Evaporated salt: Undenaturated, pure rock salt (sodium chloride) without free flow agents for the prevention of scale deposits in dishwashers. Germany.

Sodium  carbonate:   Mild alkali from special  salt de- posits  (sodium carbonate lakes). Sodium salt of car- bonic acid, sodium  carbonate which is used  in AURO powder products  for the pulping of casein.  Germany.

Stearates: Oil and  fat  components insulated  from these, used  for making  soaps and  as  auxiliaries  in paints.  Germany.

Stearic acid: Found in large quantities in fats and oils, produced from these  by fat separation. Used for mak- ing stereates and as auxiliary in paints.

Traganth: Vegetable paste for artist paints,  generated by cutting the stalk of the Astragalus gummifer domi- ciled in Turkey. Europe.

Drying agents  (lead-free):  Auxiliaries, metal  soaps made  from minerals  of calcium, cobalt,  zirconium or manganese for reducing the drying times of vegetable oils. Germany.

Turkey red oil: Ricinus oil sulphatised by conversion with sulphuric  acid, used  as auxiliary emulsifier. Ger- many.

Wine vinegar: Natural acid made from wine by means of conversion into alcohol and further fermentation to produce vinegar.

White lime hydrate: Slaked lime (aged slake lime) in powder form. Produced by the baking of chalk followed by hydration.  Already used  as binder for lime mortar and lime paints in the ancient world. Germany.

Wheat flour: Pure grain flour, used as thickening agent in paint removers. Germany.

Xanthan rubber: Highly molecular,  natural  catabolic product, polysaccharide of (the genetically unmanipu- lated!) bacterium  Xanthomonas campestris. Suitable as thickening agent and binder. Germany.

Zeolite: Aluminium silicate  produced from alaun  and sodium silicate by precipitation, a particularly environ- mentally friendly phosphate substitute for softening water. Germany.

Sugar tenside: Wash active substance, made from sug- ary raw materials  by means  of conversion  with veg- etable oils using potash at temperatures below 100 °C. Germany.

Vegetable  paints:

Logwood extract: Produced from the heartwood of trees cultivated  in plantations, used  for dyeing, its colour range covers blue and violet black shades. Europe.

Catechu: Thickened juice extract from the heartwood of the Indian Acacia catechu. Catechu is used in brown to black vegetable paints.  Asia.

Chlorophyll: Pigment made from the dye of leaf green. The green dyestuff from plant leaves is used as copper complex in vegetable paints.  Germany.

Cochenille:  Red colorant  produced by scale  insects which live on cactuses domiciled  on the Canary Isles and  in Mexico. It gives vegetable paint  pigments  a slightly bluish red colour shade. This raw material has a red to violet dyeing effect and is used as food colour- ing. Europe, North America.

Indigo: Extract produced by fermentation of the Bengal indigo plant Indigofera tinctoria. Was already used  as dye 4,000  years ago. Serves as blue vegetable paint pigment. Asia.

Madder roots: Colorant with a high content  in red dye from central Europe, Turkey and Iran which is used  in red vegetable paint pigments  for wall stains. Europe.

Vegetable paint alumina pigment: Coloured pigments for artist and wall paints  made on the basis  of a dedi- cated method. The colorants (Reseda, Madder, Indigo, Cochineal, Leaf Green, Catechu, Logwood, etc.) are ex- tracted  with water adding  alaun,  the pigment is then precipitated as alumina coloured lacquer with lyes, fil- tered and washed. A laborious process which provides harmonically bright colour shades which sometimes take many days to develop.

Reseda:  Dye plant (Reseda luteola,  Wau) for making yellow vegetable paint pigment. Europe.


Solvents, ethereal oils:

Alcohol: Produced  by the fermentation of starch  con- taining vegetables, e.g. potatoes, followed by distilla- tion. AURO only uses  non denatured alcohol for shellacs. Germany.

Cembra oil: A water light oil of the Swiss pine, also re- ferred  to  as  Swiss  stone  pine  oil, with  strong  but flavoursome  odour.  Protects  from textile moths  and other insects. Europe.

Bergamot oil: Pure ethereal, yellowish oil from the fruit skin of the Bergamot tree (Citris bergamia),  used  as scent. Europe.

Eucalyptus oil: Ethereal oil with slightly preserving ef- fect made from the leaves of the Australian Eucalyptus tree, produced by water vapour distillation.  Europe.

Pine terpene  alcohol: High-boiling fractions from the distillation  of pine balsam  terpene  oil following cat- alytic water addition.  Europe.

Lavender oil: Water vapour distilled oil of the lavender plant (Lavandula officinalis) domiciled in Mediter- ranean  countries. Europe.

Lemongrass terpenes: Distillate from the ethereal oil of the tropical grass Andropogon flexuosus  domiciled in East India. Asia.

Orange oil: Ethereal oil produced during the manufac- ture of orange juice. The distilled, highly fragrant com- ponents are  used  in the  perfume  industry  and  for aroma therapy. The “terpene  lyes” of weaker fragrance are used as solvents in resins and oils. South America.

Rosemary oil: Ethereal oil produced from the leaves of real rosemary by water vapour distillation.  The oil has mildly fungicidal and preserving properties. Europe.

Water: AURO uses particularly soft, pure drinking water from the nearley Harz mountains. Germany.

We declare all raw materials  contained in our products. Please see for more information about our concept of “gentle chemistry”.